As a homeowner, it is very important that you are issued with the correct certification when commissioning any kind of electrical work in your home. Proper certification shows any interested parties (e.g. prospective buyers if you are looking to sell, or insurance loss adjusters in the unfortunate event of a fire or other damage) that your installation, or additions to it, not only conform to the latest wiring and part P building regulations in terms of their installation but have also been properly checked and tested prior to energising. 
The three certificates are :

Electrical Installation Certificate (abbreviated to EIC) :
this is required for major work such as a full rewire or a replacement consumer unit or work carried out in a special location (e.g. a bathroom or sauna) or a completely new circuit (e.g feed to an outbuilding) . This is classed as "notifiable work" and as such it will be accompanied by a Certificate of Compliance issued by your local building control officer. It is a comprehensive document with pages to assist the homeowner in reading the results. It is essential to retain this document safely as it is your proof that the electrics in your home are legal and properly functioning.

Please note that I am not currently able to undertake any work which might require the issuing of an EIC/ Building Control sign off, as I am not yet a member of a Competent Persons Scheme (CPS) : such organisations enable their qualified members to self-certify electrical work and to arrange for the correct certification from Building Control.
Minor Electrical Installation Works Certificate (abbreviated to MEIW):
Usually simply known as a "Minor Works" certificate, this is a simpler single page form, with an additional explanatory page for the customer. This form can be used for limited work, such as modifications and additions to existing circuits, which do not fall in special locations (e.g. saunas) . Details of what might constitute "minor" works is covered in detail here >>>   Such work does not require any further certification/ sign off by Building Control, and is therefore referred to as "non-notifiable". As such, minor electrical works may be carried out by anyone with the sufficient skills and knowledge of the regulations (BS7671)  The completion of the certificate nonetheless involves full testing and inspection, using expensive and calibrated test equipment, so if someone claims they can simply add a new socket to your home, the work will not be recognised if it is not properly tested and certificated. 
I am able to undertake and test all aspects of minor electrical work and can issue compliant certification. 

Electrical Installation Condition Report (Abbreviated to EICR)
Finally, this document is issued when your installation is inspected. A bit like a car's MOT report, it results in a simple "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory" (rather than "pass" or "fail") . Multiple aspects of your system will be visually inspected and tested where applicable and graded according to one of the following codes:
C1 : immediate danger present: risk of injury or fire: immediate action required (e.g. exposed live conductors)
C2: potentially dangerous: e.g. insufficient protective measures in place, such as a high earth resistance figure
FI:  further investigation required: a potentially dangerous fault cannot be fully investigated due to restrictions
All of the above codes will result in an "Unsatisfactory" assessment.
C3 : advisory: while designated as "Satisfactory", this refers to aspects of your installation which conform to an earlier version of the wiring regulations (the current version is 2018: Amendment 2) and it may now be preferable to upgrade them. For example, new consumer units should now be made of metal. If yours is plastic, you may receive a code C3. Please note that, provided your consumer unit is functioning as it should, you are under no obligation to replace it: you should not be issued with a C2 or even C1 for a satisfactory plastic consumer unit, and if an electrician suggests otherwise, you should report them to their relevant Competent Persons Scheme (CPS) body.
An EICR is often requested by solicitors from vendors when a house is for sale, and when a rented property is let to a new tenant. If you ask an electrician to quote for major work like a replacement consumer unit or a new circuit, they may insist on running an EICR first to establish that all aspects of your system are in good working order before works begin. But they will need, in addition, to issue you with an EIC (Electrical Installation Certificate) following the works.
Who can issue an EICR ? Well contrary to many online sources, an electrician does not have to be "registered", nor a member of a Competent Persons Scheme (CPS), to issue this condition report. They do need, however, to possess the skills, knowledge and experience necessary to be able to inspect a wide range of installations (some of which can be many years old) in order to sign off the legal document. I do not consider myself experienced enough to issue such certificates although I am fully conversant with the inspections and schedule of tests required to complete the EICR and before undertaking  most kinds of minor work may run very similar visual checks and tests to ensure it is safe, and legal, to proceed. 
An EICR (Electrical Installation Condition Report) provides an overview of your home's electrical system: it is not issued when actual works are carried out. If it highlights remedial work required you will need further certification for the actual works and a follow-up report to render the system satisfactory.
When any kind of electrical work is carried out in your home, it will require either an EIC (Electrical Installation Certificate) plus a Certificate of Compliance from Building Control or a MEIWC (Minor Electrical Installation Works Certificate or "Minor Works Cert") for certain more limited work, without the requirement for a Building Control Certificate of Compliance. A list of common types of minor works can be viewed here >>>
This extremely useful video from much respected online training resource, Learn Electrics , explains exactly what documentation a domestic customer needs to receive from their electrician and local building control officer following different types of electrical installation: Part P refers to that section of the Building Regulations which covers electrical installations in dwellings rather than commercial premises:
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